European Union – Workers. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling on the interpretation of art 41(1) of the Additional Protocol, concluded, approved and confirmed on behalf of the Community by Council Regulation (EEC) No 2760/72 and annexed to the Association Agreement, and art 13 of Decision No 1/80 of the Association Council of 19 September 1980 on the development of the association. The request had been made in proceedings between the applicant and the respondent concerning a fine imposed on the applicant for having had works carried out by nationals of non-member states without those workers having been issued with a work permit.