Criminal law – Misconduct in public office. The defendants appealed against convictions for misconduct in public office, and conspiracy to commit, and aiding and abetting that offence. The Court of Appeal, Criminal Division, held that the jury had to be directed to determine whether the defendants' conduct had had the effect of harming the public interest as a step in deciding whether the conduct had been so serious as to amount to an abuse of the public's trust. As that had not been properly explained to the jury with respect to three defendants, their convictions would be quashed. Further guidance was given on directions for the secondary offences.