European Union – Trade marks. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of arts 2 and 3 of Directive (EC) 2008/95 of the European Parliament and of the Council (to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks). The request had been made in proceedings between Apple Inc (Apple) and the German Patent and Trade Mark Office, concerning the latter's rejection of an application by Apple for registration of a trade mark.