European Union – Trade marks. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of art 5(2) of First Council Directive (EEC) 89/104 (to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks). The request had been made in proceedings between Leidseplein Beheer BV and Mr de Vries, on the one hand, and Red Bull GmbH and Red Bull Nederland BV, on the other, concerning the production and marketing by Mr de Vries of energy drinks with packaging that displayed the 'Bull Dog' sign or another sign containing the word element 'Bull' or other signs which were confusingly similar to the trade mark registrations of Red Bull.