Social security – Income support. The Court of Appeal, Civil Division, determined two appeals regarding the effect of the Jobseekers (Back to Work Schemes) Act 2013. It held that, by that Act, Parliament had successfully retrospectively validated sanctions imposed on jobseeker's allowance claimants who had failed to participate in certain back to work schemes. In the cases of those claimants who had already appealed their sanctions, the Act had been incompatible with their rights under art 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights.