European Union – Failure to fulfil obligations. Article 2(a) of Council Directive (EC) 1999/37, read in conjunction with art 3(11) and (13) of Directive (EC) 2007/46 should be interpreted as meaning that Directive 1999/37 was applicable to the documents issued by member states at the time of the registration of vehicles manufactured before 29 April 2009, the date of expiry of the period for transposition of Directive 2007/46. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in proceedings concerning the refusal by the Road Traffic Authority Board, Netherlands, to recognise the vehicle registration certificates issued by other member states and to register those vehicles in the Netherlands.