European Union – Civil and commercial matters. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of arts 1, 22(2), 34(1) and 35(1) of Council Regulation (EC) 44/2001 (on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters). The request had been made in proceedings between flyLAL-Lithuanian Airlines AS (in liquidation), a company incorporated under Lithuanian law, and Starptautiskā lidosta Rīga VAS (a company incorporated under Latvian law) and another company, concerning a request for recognition and enforcement in Latvia of a judgment of a Lithuanian court ordering provisional or protective measures.