European Union – Consumer protection. Article 15 of the Convention on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, approved on behalf of the Community by Council Decision (EC) 2009/430, should be interpreted as meaning that, for the purposes of ascertaining whether a credit agreement was a credit agreement concluded by a 'consumer' within the meaning of art 15, it should not be determined whether the agreement fell within the scope of Directive (EC) 2008/48, in the sense that the total cost of credit in question did not exceed the ceiling set out in art 2(2)(c) of that directive, and that it was irrelevant, in that regard, that the national law transposing that directive did not provide for a higher ceiling. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held in proceedings between the applicant company and the respondent for the repayment of a loan.