Criminal law – Domestic violence. The words 'or otherwise' in the definition of 'vulnerable adult' in s 5(6) of the Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004, had created a separate third category, which could simply be defined as: a cause (other than physical or mental disability or illness or old age) which had the effect on the victim of significantly impairing his ability to protect himself from violence, abuse or neglect. Accordingly, the Court of Appeal, Criminal Division, dismissed the defendant's appeal against a conviction for an offence of causing or allowing the death of a vulnerable adult, contrary to s 5 of the Act.