European Union – Value added tax. The Court of justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling, deciding, among other things, that art 2(1)(c) of Council Directive (EC) 2006/112 had to be interpreted as meaning that transactions which consisted of the exchange of traditional currency for units of the 'bitcoin' virtual currency and vice versa, in return for payment of a sum equal to the difference between, on the one hand, the price paid by the operator to purchase the currency and, on the other hand, the price at which he sold that currency to his clients, constituted the supply of services for consideration within the meaning of that article.