European Union – Freedom to provide services. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of art 56 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and art 8 of Directive (EC) 98/34/, as amended by Directive (EC) 98/48. The request had been made in the context of two joined sets of criminal proceedings brought against Ms Ince, who was alleged to have acted as an intermediary, without the authorisation of the competent authority, in sporting bets within the territory of the state of Bavaria.