Immigration – Leave to remain. The Court of Appeal, Civil Division, held that para 322(1A) of the Immigration Rules was not ultra vires. The Immigration Rules did not constitute 'rules' in the sense that a statute or a statutory instrument did, but it was not the case that they were statements of policy, subject to all the public law constraints on policies and discretionary powers, including the non-fettering principle. Further, although para 322(1A) of the Immigration Rules was in mandatory terms, the Secretary of State might depart from it by making a decision more beneficial to an applicant such as to grant discretionary leave to remain 'outside the rules' when the Immigration Rules provided that leave should not be given.