European Union – Reference to European court. The present proceedings arose from two claims for judicial review, the formal object of which was the intention and obligation of the defendant Secretary of State to implement European Parliament and Council Directive (EU) 2014/40. The parties had agreed a series of proposed questions for referral to the Court of Justice of the European Union and a number of organisations wished to be categorised as parties. The Administrative Court held that the draft reference would be amended to make it expressly clear that the court considered the organisations to be parties for the purposes of their participation.