European Union – Regulations. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling, deciding, among other things that, the concept of 'economic activity' within the meaning of art 1(5) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005, should be interpreted as meaning that it covered an activity, such as that at issue in the main proceedings, relating to the transport of stray dogs from one member state to another by a charitable association in order to hand over those dogs to persons who had undertaken to adopt them after payment by those persons of a sum covering, in principle, the costs incurred for that purpose by that association.