European Union – Residence. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling, deciding that art 7(1)(c) of Council Directive (EC) 2003/86 should be interpreted as allowing the competent authorities of a member state to refuse an application for family reunification on the basis of a prospective assessment of the likelihood of the sponsor retaining, or failing to retain, the necessary stable and regular resources which were sufficient to maintain himself and the members of his family, without recourse to the social assistance system of that member state, in the year following the date of submission of that application, that assessment being based on the pattern of the sponsor's income in the six months preceding that date.