European Union – Data protection. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of art 2(b) and (d), art 4(1)(a) and (c), art 12(b) and sub-paragraph (a) of the first paragraph of art 14 of Directive (EC) 95/46 of the European Parliament and of the and of art 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The request had been made in proceedings between, on the one hand, Google Spain SL and Google Inc. and the Spanish Data Protection Agency (the AEPD); and Mr Costeja González concerning a decision by the AEPD upholding the complaint lodged by Mr Costeja González against those two companies and ordering Google Inc. to adopt the measures necessary to withdraw personal data relating to Mr Costeja González from its index and to prevent access to the data in the future.