European Union – Civil and commercial matters. The proceedings concerned three actions, which were subsequently joined, concerning the interpretation of art 5(1) of Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 in the context of payment of compensation for a flight delay and denied boarding. The Court of Justice of the European Union in a preliminary ruling held, among other things, that in Case C-448/16, the concept of 'matters relating to a contract', for the purposes of art 5(1)(a), covered a claim brought by air passengers for compensation for the long delay of a connecting flight, made under Regulation (EC) No 261/2004, against an operating air carrier with which the passenger concerned did not have contractual relations.