European Union – Environment. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling, deciding that arts 2(a) and 3(2)(a) of Directive (EC) 2001/42 had to be interpreted as meaning that the adoption of a measure containing a plan or programme relating to town and country planning and land use falling within the scope of the Directive that modified an existing plan or programme could not be exempted from the obligation to carry out an environmental assessment under that directive on the ground that that measure was intended to give more specific expression to and implement a master plan established by a hierarchically superior measure that had not, itself, been the subject of such an environmental assessment.