European Union – Copyright. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling, deciding that art 4(1) of Directive (EC) 2001/29 (on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society) had to be interpreted as meaning that it allowed a holder of an exclusive right to distribute a protected work to prevent an offer for sale or a targeted advertisement of the original or a copy of that work, even if it was not established that that advertisement had given rise to the purchase of the protected work by an EU buyer, in so far as that that advertisement invited consumers of the member state in which that work was protected by copyright to purchase it.