Human rights – Retrospective punishment. The European Court of Human Rights found that art 7(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights had not been violated by the applicant's conviction for contempt of court by going on the internet to conduct research into the previous conviction of the defendant in the case in which she had been sitting as a juror. The test for contempt of court had been both accessible and foreseeable, and the law-making function of the courts had remained within reasonable limits.