European Union – Environment. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of art 16(3) and (4) of Directive (EC) 2003/87 (establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community), as amended. The request had been made in proceedings between Germany and Nordzucker AG concerning a decision imposing a penalty of €106,920 on the latter for infringement of its obligation to surrender sufficient greenhouse gas emission allowances to cover its emissions during the preceding year.