European Union – Jurisdiction. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of arts 1(2) and 49 of Council Regulation (EC) 44/2001, and of art 47(1) of Council Regulation (EC) 2201/2003, deciding that, among other things, art 1 of Regulation 44/2001 had to be interpreted as meaning that that regulation did not apply to the enforcement in a member state of a penalty payment which was imposed in a judgment, given in another member state, concerning rights of custody and rights of access in order to ensure that the holder of the rights of custody complied with those rights of access.