European Union – Freedom of movement. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of art 12 of Council Directive (EC) 2004/114 (on the conditions of admission of third-country nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service). The request had been made in the course of proceedings brought by Mr Ben Alaya against Germany, concerning its refusal to grant him a visa for study purposes.