European Union – Immigration. The Court of Justice of the European Union made a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of art 4 of Council Directive (EC) 2004/83 (on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted) and arts 3 and 7 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The requests had been made in proceedings between A, B and C, who were third country nationals, and the Netherlands State Secretary for Security and Justice concerning the rejection of their applications for asylum in the Netherlands.