Immigration – Refugee. The appellant appealed against the determination of the Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber), upholding the respondent Secretary of State's decision to exclude him from protection as a refugee on the basis that he had committed a serious non-political crime in France. The Court of Appeal, Civil Division, in dismissing the appeal, held that art 1F of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 could not be construed such that 'serious' should not be qualified by 'particularly'.