European Union – Civil and commercial matters. Article 1(1) and (2)(a) of Regulation 44/2001 had to be interpreted as meaning that an action, such as that at issue in the main proceedings, concerning an application for dissolution of the property relationships arising out a de facto (unregistered) partnership, came within the concept of 'civil and commercial matters' within the meaning of art 1(1) of that regulation and fell, therefore, within the material scope of that regulation. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in proceedings concerning the issuance of the certificate referred to in art 53 of Regulation (EU) 1215/2012, for the purposes of enforcing a final judgment given against the respondent who had been in an unregistered non-marital partnership with the applicant.