European Union – Public supply contracts. Article 57(7) of Directive (EU) 2014/24 had to be interpreted as meaning that, where an economic operator had been engaged in conduct falling within the ground for exclusion referred to in art 57(4)(d) of that directive, which had been penalised by a competent authority, the maximum period of exclusion was calculated from the date of that authority's decision. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in a preliminary ruling in proceedings concerning the applicant company's exclusion from the qualifications system put in place by the respondent company in connection with the award of public procurement contracts in the field of provision of railway material.