European Union – Data protection. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling in which it decided that art 7(f) of Directive (EC) 95/46 should be interpreted as not imposing the obligation to disclose personal data to a third party in order to enable him to bring an action for damages before a civil court for harm caused by the person concerned by the protection of that data. However, art 7(f) of that directive did not preclude such disclosure on the basis of national law.