European Union – Copyright. Directive (EC) 2001/29 precluded national legislation which permitted a commercial undertaking to provide private individuals with a cloud service for the remote recording of private copies of works protected by copyright, by means of a computer system, by actively involving itself in the recording, without the rightholder's consent. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held in a preliminary ruling concerning the lawfulness of the making available to the applicant company's customers of a cloud video recording system for television programmes broadcast, among other things, by the respondent company.