European Union – Data protection. Article 2(d) of Directive (EC) 95/46 should be interpreted as meaning that the concept of 'controller' within the meaning of that provision encompassed the administrator of a fan page hosted on a social network. Consequently, the respondent private company (WSH), which offered free educational services by means of a fan page hosted on Facebook, could be regarded as a 'controller' within the meaning of art 2(d) of that directive. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in a preliminary ruling in proceedings concerning the lawfulness of the applicant German independent protection centre's order to WSH to deactivate its fan page on the Facebook social network site.