European Union – Environment. The present request for a preliminary ruling before the Court of Justice of the European Union concerned the interpretation of arts 191 and 193 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and of Directive (EC) 2004/35. The request had been made in a dispute between the applicant company and the respondent National inspectorate general for the protection of the environment and nature, Hungary, concerning a fine imposed on the applicant as a result of illegal waste incineration occurring on land belonging to it and which had resulted in air pollution.