European Union – Copyright. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling in which it decided, among other things, that art 3(1) of Directive (EC) 2001/29 and art 11bis of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, as amended, had be interpreted as not precluding national legislation, such as that at issue in the main proceedings, which provided that the simultaneous, full and unaltered transmission of programmes broadcast by the national broadcasting corporation, by means of cables on national territory, was not subject, under the exclusive right of communication to the public, to the requirement that authorisation be obtained from the author, provided that it was merely a technical means of communication and had been taken into account by the author of the work when the latter had authorised the original communication, that being a matter for the national court to ascertain.