European Union – Transport. Article 2(1) of Directive (EC) 2006/126 and arts 18, 21, 45, 49 and 56 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union should be interpreted as not precluding legislation of a member state under which that member state could refuse to recognise a certificate issued in another member state evidencing its holder's right to drive, where that certificate did not fulfil the requirements of the model driving licence provided for in that directive, even if the conditions set by that directive for issuing a driving licence had been satisfied by the holder of that certificate. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in a preliminary ruling in criminal proceedings brought against the applicant, resident in France, for having driven a motor vehicle in Germany without a right to drive.