European Union – Freedom to provide services. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling in which it decided that art 355(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), in conjunction with art 56 TFEU, was to be interpreted as meaning that the provision of services by operators established in Gibraltar to persons established in the United Kingdom constituted, under EU law, a situation confined in all respects within a single member state.