Extradition – European arrest warrant. The Court of Justice of the European Union, in a preliminary ruling, determined that the concept of an 'issuing judicial authority', within the meaning of art 6(1) of Framework Decision (JHA) 2002/584, had to be interpreted as not including public prosecutors' offices of a member state which were exposed to the risk of being subject, directly or indirectly, to directions or instructions in a specific case from the executive, such as a Minister for Justice, in connection with the adoption of a decision to issue a European arrest warrant.