European Union – Contract. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling deciding, among other things, that art 2(1) of Council Directive (EC) 2000/35 had to be interpreted as meaning that a natural person holding a licence to carry out an activity as a self-employed craftsman should be regarded as an 'undertaking' within the meaning of that provision, and a transaction concluded by him as a 'commercial transaction' within the meaning of that provision, where that transaction, although not part of the activities covered by the licence, formed part of the exercise of an independent economic or professional activity that was structured and stable, which was for the referring court to ascertain in the light of all the circumstances of the case.