European Union - Consumer protection – Concepts of 'trader' and 'commercial practices'. Articles 2(b) and (d) of Directive (EC) 2005/29 and 2(2) of Directive (EU) 2011/83 should be interpreted as meaning that a natural person, such as the respondent in the main proceedings, who published simultaneously on a website a number of advertisements offering new and second-hand goods for sale could be classified as a 'trader', and such an activity could constitute a 'commercial practice', only if that person was acting for purposes relating to his trade, business, craft or profession, that being a matter for the national court to determine, in the light of all relevant circumstances of the individual case. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held in proceedings between the applicant consumer protection commission and the respondent regarding her failure to provide information to consumers in advertisements for the sale of goods published on a website.