European Union – Environment. In proceedings concerning the burden of the costs of judicial proceedings brought by the applicant against certain planning permission granted by the Planning Appeals Board, Ireland, the Court of Justice of the European Union was asked to interpret the fifth paragraph of art 10a of Council Directive (EEC) 85/337, as amended. The Court decided, among other things, that 'the not prohibitively expensive rule' laid down therein did not have direct effect. Where that article had not been transposed by a member state, the national courts of that member state were nonetheless required to interpret national law to the fullest extent possible, once the time limit for transposing that article had expired, in such a way that persons should not be prevented from seeking, or pursuing a claim for, a review by the courts, which fell within the scope of that article, by reason of the financial burden that might arise as a result.