European Union – Immigration. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling, deciding that the first subparagraph of art 8(3)(a) and (b) of Directive (EU) 2013/33 of the European Parliament and of the Council, had disclosed nothing capable of affecting the validity of that provision in the light of arts 6 and 52(1) and (3) of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.