Practice – Summary judgment. The claimant's claim against the defendant for defamation was struck out and the defendant was entitled to summary judgment. The Queen's Bench Division held that the defendant was entitled to rely on previous observations made by various judges that the claimant was a vexatious claimant who had commenced multiple actions which had been characterised as being without merit. The defendant was thus entitled to plead and prove the whole of the claimant's litigious conduct by way of justification. However, even if the decisions and observations of the other judges had been inadmissible for the purposes of establishing the defence of justification, the source materials that underpinned those decisions and observations were still admissible as hearsay.