European Union – Copyright. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling, deciding that art 9 of Directive (EC) 2001/29 and specifically the concept of 'access to cable of broadcasting services', should be interpreted as not covering, and not permitting, national legislation which provided that copyright was not infringed in the case of the immediate retransmission by cable, including, where relevant, via the internet, in the area of initial broadcast, of works broadcast on television channels subject to public service obligations.