European Union – Commission. Article 299 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) should be interpreted as not determining the choice of the national competent court to hear actions connected with the enforcement of enforceable European Commission acts which imposed a pecuniary obligation on persons other than states, in accordance wth that article, that determination being a matter for national law by virtue of the principle of procedural autonomy, provided that that determination did not undermine the application and effectiveness of EU law. The Court of Justice of the European Union so ruled in a preliminary ruling concerning the recovery, further to a decision of the Commission ordering the recovery of sums previously paid, enforceable in accordance with art 299 TFEU, of part of the aid granted by the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund.