European Union – Consumer protection. Directive (EC) 2005/29 should be interpreted as precluding a national provision, such as that at issue in the main proceedings, which contained a general prohibition on offering for sale or selling goods at a loss and which laid down grounds of derogation from that prohibition that were based on criteria not appearing in that directive. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held in a preliminary ruling in proceedings between the applicant company and the Spanish regional authority concerning the legality of an administrative penalty imposed on the applicant due to an infringement of the prohibition on selling at a loss laid down by Spanish legislation relating to retail commerce.