European Union – Immigration. Article 32(3) of Regulation (EC) 810/2009, read in the light of art 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, required member states to provide for an appeal procedure against decisions refusing visas, the procedural rules for which were a matter for the legal order of each member state in accordance with the principles of equivalence and effectiveness. Those proceedings should, at a certain stage of the proceedings, guarantee a judicial appeal. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held in a preliminary ruling concerning the decision to dismiss the applicant's appeal against the decision to refuse to issue him a Schengen visa.