European Union – Immigration. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling deciding, among other things, that art 12(2)(c) of Council Directive (EC) 2004/83 should be interpreted as meaning that it was not a prerequisite for the ground for exclusion of refugee status specified in that provision to be held to be established that an applicant for international protection should have been convicted of one of the terrorist offences referred to in art 1(1) of Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism.