European Union – Trade marks. Article 4(c) of (EC) Directive 2004/48 should be interpreted as meaning that the member states were required to recognise a body collectively representing trade mark proprietors as a person entitled to seek, in its own name, the application of the remedies laid down by that directive, for the purpose of defending the rights of those trade mark proprietors, and to bring legal proceedings, in its own name, for the purpose of enforcing those rights, on condition that that body was regarded by national law as having a direct interest in the defence of such rights and that that law allowed it to bring legal proceedings to that end, those being matters for the referring court to verify. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in a preliminary ruling in proceedings concerning the respondent's liability for infringement of the intellectual property rights of ten trade mark proprietors.