European Union – Civil and commercial matters. Article 5(3) of Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 had to be interpreted as meaning that, in the context of an action seeking compensation for damage caused by anti-competitive conduct, the 'place where the harmful event occurred' covered, among other things, the place where the loss of income consisting in loss of sales had occurred, namely, the place of the market which was affected by that conduct and on which the victim claimed to have suffered those losses. The Court of Justice of the European Union so held, among other things, in a preliminary ruling in proceedings brought by the applicant airline (in liquidation) seeking a declaration that the first and second respondent companies had engaged in anti-competitive conduct contrary to arts 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and compensation for the resulting damage sustained.