*R (on the application of Gallaher Group Ltd and others) v Competition and Markets Authority

Natural justice – Duty to act fairly. The domestic law did not recognise equal treatment as a distinct principle of administrative law; consistency was a generally desirable objective, but not an absolute rule. The Supreme Court further held that substantive unfairness was not a distinct legal criterion and was not made so by the addition of terms such as 'conspicuous' or 'abuse of power', which added nothing to the ordinary principles of judicial review.