European Union – Intellectual property rights. The Court of Justice of the European Union gave a preliminary ruling deciding that art 13 of Directive (EC) 2004/48 should be interpreted as not precluding national legislation, such as that at issue in the main proceedings, under which the holder of an intellectual property right that had been infringed could demand from the person who had infringed that right either compensation for the damage that he had suffered, taking account of all the appropriate aspects of the particular case, or, without him having to prove the actual loss, payment of a sum corresponding to twice the appropriate fee which would have been due if permission had been given for the work concerned to be used.