European Union – Data protection. Article 2(a) of Directive (EC) 95/46 should be interpreted as meaning that, in circumstances such as those of the main proceedings, the written answers submitted by a candidate at a professional examination and any comments made by an examiner with respect to those answers constituted personal data, within the meaning of that provision. The Court of Justice of the European union so held in proceedings between the applicant and the Data Protection Commissioner (Ireland) concerning the latter's refusal to give the applicant access to a corrected script of an examination at which he had been a candidate, on the ground that the information contained therein did not constitute personal data.